C-like structures in Python
Update: Data Classes
With the introduction of Data Classes in Python 3.7 we get very close.
The following example is similar to the NamedTuple example below, but the resulting object is mutable and it allows for default values.
from dataclasses import dataclassclass Point: x: float y: float z: float = 0.0p = Point(1.5, 2.5)print(p) # Point(x=1.5, y=2.5, z=0.0)
This plays nicely with the new typing module in case you want to use more specific type annotations.
I've been waiting desperately for this! If you ask me, Data Classes and the new NamedTuple declaration, combined with the typing module are a godsend!
Improved NamedTuple declaration
Since Python 3.6 it became quite simple and beautiful (IMHO), as long as you can live with immutability.
A new way of declaring NamedTuples was introduced, which allows for type annotations as well:
from typing import NamedTupleclass User(NamedTuple): name: strclass MyStruct(NamedTuple): foo: str bar: int baz: list qux: Usermy_item = MyStruct('foo', 0, ['baz'], User('peter'))print(my_item) # MyStruct(foo='foo', bar=0, baz=['baz'], qux=User(name='peter'))
Use a named tuple, which was added to the collections module in the standard library in Python 2.6. It's also possible to use Raymond Hettinger's named tuple recipe if you need to support Python 2.4.
It's nice for your basic example, but also covers a bunch of edge cases you might run into later as well. Your fragment above would be written as:
from collections import namedtupleMyStruct = namedtuple("MyStruct", "field1 field2 field3")
The newly created type can be used like this:
m = MyStruct("foo", "bar", "baz")
You can also use named arguments:
m = MyStruct(field1="foo", field2="bar", field3="baz")
You can use a tuple for a lot of things where you would use a struct in C (something like x,y coordinates or RGB colors for example).
For everything else you can use dictionary, or a utility class like this one:
class Bunch: def __init__(self, **kwds): self.__dict__.update(kwds)... mystruct = Bunch(field1=value1, field2=value2)
I think the "definitive" discussion is here, in the published version of the Python Cookbook.