Defining private module functions in python
In Python, "privacy" depends on "consenting adults'" levels of agreement - you can't force it (any more than you can in real life;-). A single leading underscore means you're not supposed to access it "from the outside" -- two leading underscores (w/o trailing underscores) carry the message even more forcefully... but, in the end, it still depends on social convention and consensus: Python's introspection is forceful enough that you can't handcuff every other programmer in the world to respect your wishes.
((Btw, though it's a closely held secret, much the same holds for C++: with most compilers, a simple
#define private public line before
.h file is all it takes for wily coders to make hash of your "privacy"...!-))
There may be confusion between class privates and module privates.
A module private starts with one underscore
Such a element is not copied along when using the
from <module_name> import * form of the import command; it is however imported if using the
import <moudule_name> syntax (see Ben Wilhelm's answer)
Simply remove one underscore from the a.__num of the question's example and it won't show in modules that import a.py using the
from a import * syntax.
A class private starts with two underscores (aka dunder i.e. d-ouble under-score)
Such a variable has its name "mangled" to include the classname etc.
It can still be accessed outside of the class logic, through the mangled name.
Although the name mangling can serve as a mild prevention device against unauthorized access, its main purpose is to prevent possible name collisions with class members of the ancestor classes. See Alex Martelli's funny but accurate reference to consenting adults as he describes the convention used in regards to these variables.
class Foo(object): __bar = 99 def PrintBar(self): print(self.__bar)... myFoo = Foo() myFoo.__bar #direct attempt no goTraceback (most recent call last): File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>AttributeError: 'Foo' object has no attribute '__bar'myFoo.PrintBar() # the class itself of course can access it99dir(Foo) # yet can see it['PrintBar', '_Foo__bar', '__class__', '__delattr__', '__dict__', '__doc__', '__format__', '__getattribute__', '__hash__', '__init__', '__module__', '__new__','__reduce__', '__reduce_ex__', '__repr__', '__setattr__', '__sizeof__', '__str__', '__subclasshook__', '__weakref__'] myFoo._Foo__bar #and get to it by its mangled name ! (but I shouldn't!!!)99>>>
This question was not fully answered, since module privacy is not purely conventional, and since using import may or may not recognize module privacy, depending on how it is used.
If you define private names in a module, those names will be imported into any script that uses the syntax, 'import module_name'. Thus, assuming you had correctly defined in your example the module private, _num, in a.py, like so..
..you would be able to access it in b.py with the module name symbol:
#b.pyimport a...foo = a._num # 1
To import only non-privates from a.py, you must use the from syntax:
#b.pyfrom a import *...foo = _num # throws NameError: name '_num' is not defined
For the sake of clarity, however, it is better to be explicit when importing names from modules, rather than importing them all with a '*':
#b.pyfrom a import name1 from a import name2...