Download file from web in Python 3
If you want to obtain the contents of a web page into a variable, just
read the response of
import urllib.request...url = 'http://example.com/'response = urllib.request.urlopen(url)data = response.read() # a `bytes` objecttext = data.decode('utf-8') # a `str`; this step can't be used if data is binary
The easiest way to download and save a file is to use the
import urllib.request...# Download the file from `url` and save it locally under `file_name`:urllib.request.urlretrieve(url, file_name)
import urllib.request...# Download the file from `url`, save it in a temporary directory and get the# path to it (e.g. '/tmp/tmpb48zma.txt') in the `file_name` variable:file_name, headers = urllib.request.urlretrieve(url)
But keep in mind that
urlretrieve is considered legacy and might become deprecated (not sure why, though).
So the most correct way to do this would be to use the
urllib.request.urlopen function to return a file-like object that represents an HTTP response and copy it to a real file using
import urllib.requestimport shutil...# Download the file from `url` and save it locally under `file_name`:with urllib.request.urlopen(url) as response, open(file_name, 'wb') as out_file: shutil.copyfileobj(response, out_file)
If this seems too complicated, you may want to go simpler and store the whole download in a
bytes object and then write it to a file. But this works well only for small files.
import urllib.request...# Download the file from `url` and save it locally under `file_name`:with urllib.request.urlopen(url) as response, open(file_name, 'wb') as out_file: data = response.read() # a `bytes` object out_file.write(data)
It is possible to extract
.gz (and maybe other formats) compressed data on the fly, but such an operation probably requires the HTTP server to support random access to the file.
import urllib.requestimport gzip...# Read the first 64 bytes of the file inside the .gz archive located at `url`url = 'http://example.com/something.gz'with urllib.request.urlopen(url) as response: with gzip.GzipFile(fileobj=response) as uncompressed: file_header = uncompressed.read(64) # a `bytes` object # Or do anything shown above using `uncompressed` instead of `response`.
requests package whenever I want something related to HTTP requests because its API is very easy to start with:
$ pip install requests
then the code:
from requests import get # to make GET requestdef download(url, file_name): # open in binary mode with open(file_name, "wb") as file: # get request response = get(url) # write to file file.write(response.content)
I hope I understood the question right, which is: how to download a file from a server when the URL is stored in a string type?
I download files and save it locally using the below code:
import requestsurl = 'https://www.python.org/static/img/python-logo.png'fileName = 'D:\Python\dwnldPythonLogo.png'req = requests.get(url)file = open(fileName, 'wb')for chunk in req.iter_content(100000): file.write(chunk)file.close()