How to import a Python class that is in a directory above?
from ..subpkg2 import mod
Per the Python docs: When inside a package hierarchy, use two dots, as the import statement doc says:
When specifying what module to import you do not have to specify the absolute name of the module. When a module or package is contained within another package it is possible to make a relative import within the same top package without having to mention the package name. By using leading dots in the specified module or package after
fromyou can specify how high to traverse up the current package hierarchy without specifying exact names. One leading dot means the current package where the module making the import exists. Two dots means up one package level. Three dots is up two levels, etc. So if you execute
from . import modfrom a module in the
pkgpackage then you will end up importing
pkg.mod. If you execute
from ..subpkg2 import modfrom within
pkg.subpkg1you will import
pkg.subpkg2.mod. The specification for relative imports is contained within PEP 328.
PEP 328 deals with absolute/relative imports.
import syssys.path.append("..") # Adds higher directory to python modules path.
@gimel's answer is correct if you can guarantee the package hierarchy he mentions. If you can't -- if your real need is as you expressed it, exclusively tied to directories and without any necessary relationship to packaging -- then you need to work on
__file__ to find out the parent directory (a couple of
os.path.dirname calls will do;-), then (if that directory is not already on
sys.path) prepend temporarily insert said dir at the very start of
__import__, remove said dir again -- messy work indeed, but, "when you must, you must" (and Pyhon strives to never stop the programmer from doing what must be done -- just like the ISO C standard says in the "Spirit of C" section in its preface!-).
Here is an example that may work for you:
import sysimport os.pathsys.path.append( os.path.abspath(os.path.join(os.path.dirname(__file__), os.path.pardir)))import module_in_parent_dir