Importing modules from parent folder
You could use relative imports (python >= 2.5):
from ... import nib
(What’s New in Python 2.5) PEP 328: Absolute and Relative Imports
EDIT: added another dot '.' to go up two packages
Relative imports (as in
from .. import mymodule) only work in a package.To import 'mymodule' that is in the parent directory of your current module:
import osimport sysimport inspectcurrentdir = os.path.dirname(os.path.abspath(inspect.getfile(inspect.currentframe())))parentdir = os.path.dirname(currentdir)sys.path.insert(0, parentdir) import mymodule
__file__ attribute is not always given. Instead of using
os.path.abspath(__file__) I now suggested using the inspect module to retrieve the filename (and path) of the current file
I posted a similar answer also to the question regarding imports from sibling packages. You can see it here.
- Wrap the code into one folder (e.g.
- Use create
setup.pyscript where you use setuptools.setup().
- Pip install the package in editable state with
pip install -e <myproject_folder>
- Import using
from packaged_stuff.modulename import function_name
I assume the same folder structure as in the question
.└── ptdraft ├── __init__.py ├── nib.py └── simulations ├── __init__.py └── life ├── __init__.py └── life.py
I call the
. the root folder, and in my case it is located in
setup.pyto the root folder--The contents of the
setup.pycan be simply
from setuptools import setup, find_packages
setup(name='myproject', version='1.0', packages=find_packages())
setup.py would work. This is just a minimal working example.
- Use a virtual environment
If you are familiar with virtual environments, activate one, and skip to the next step. Usage of virtual environments are not absolutely required, but they will really help you out in the long run (when you have more than 1 project ongoing..). The most basic steps are (run in the root folder)
- Create virtual env
python -m venv venv
- Activate virtual env
. venv/bin/activate(Linux) or
- Deactivate virtual env
To learn more about this, just Google out "python virtualenv tutorial" or similar. You probably never need any other commands than creating, activating and deactivating.
Once you have made and activated a virtual environment, your console should give the name of the virtual environment in parenthesis
PS C:\tmp\test_imports> python -m venv venvPS C:\tmp\test_imports> .\venv\Scripts\activate(venv) PS C:\tmp\test_imports>
- pip install your project in editable state
Install your top level package
pip. The trick is to use the
-e flag when doing the install. This way it is installed in an editable state, and all the edits made to the .py files will be automatically included in the installed package.
In the root directory, run
pip install -e . (note the dot, it stands for "current directory")
You can also see that it is installed by using
(venv) PS C:\tmp\test_imports> pip install -e .Obtaining file:///C:/tmp/test_importsInstalling collected packages: myproject Running setup.py develop for myprojectSuccessfully installed myproject(venv) PS C:\tmp\test_imports> pip freezemyproject==1.0
- Import by prepending
mainfolderto every import
In this example, the
mainfolder would be
ptdraft. This has the advantage that you will not run into name collisions with other module names (from python standard library or 3rd party modules).
def function_from_nib(): print('I am the return value from function_from_nib!')
from ptdraft.nib import function_from_nibif __name__ == '__main__': function_from_nib()
(venv) PS C:\tmp\test_imports> python .\ptdraft\simulations\life\life.pyI am the return value from function_from_nib!