Is there a way to run Python on Android?
One way is to use Kivy:
Open source Python library for rapid development of applications that make use of innovative user interfaces, such as multi-touch apps.
Kivy runs on Linux, Windows, OS X, Android and iOS. You can run the same [python] code on all supported platforms.
There is also the new Android Scripting Environment (ASE/SL4A) project. It looks awesome, and it has some integration with native Android components.
Note: no longer under "active development", but some forks may be.
Yes! : Android Scripting Environment
An example via Matt Cutts via SL4A -- "here’s a barcode scanner written in six lines of Python code:
import androiddroid = android.Android()code = droid.scanBarcode()isbn = int(code['result']['SCAN_RESULT'])url = "http://books.google.com?q=%d" % isbndroid.startActivity('android.intent.action.VIEW', url)