Most efficient way to map function over numpy array Most efficient way to map function over numpy array python python

Most efficient way to map function over numpy array

I've tested all suggested methods plus np.array(map(f, x)) with perfplot (a small project of mine).

Message #1: If you can use numpy's native functions, do that.

If the function you're trying to vectorize already is vectorized (like the x**2 example in the original post), using that is much faster than anything else (note the log scale):

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If you actually need vectorization, it doesn't really matter much which variant you use.

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Code to reproduce the plots:

import numpy as npimport perfplotimport mathdef f(x):    # return math.sqrt(x)    return np.sqrt(x)vf = np.vectorize(f)def array_for(x):    return np.array([f(xi) for xi in x])def array_map(x):    return np.array(list(map(f, x)))def fromiter(x):    return np.fromiter((f(xi) for xi in x), x.dtype)def vectorize(x):    return np.vectorize(f)(x)def vectorize_without_init(x):    return vf(x)    setup=np.random.rand,    n_range=[2 ** k for k in range(20)],    kernels=[f, array_for, array_map, fromiter,             vectorize, vectorize_without_init],    xlabel="len(x)",)

How about using numpy.vectorize.

import numpy as npx = np.array([1, 2, 3, 4, 5])squarer = lambda t: t ** 2vfunc = np.vectorize(squarer)vfunc(x)# Output : array([ 1,  4,  9, 16, 25])


As noted by @user2357112, a "direct" method of applying the function is always the fastest and simplest way to map a function over Numpy arrays:

import numpy as npx = np.array([1, 2, 3, 4, 5])f = lambda x: x ** 2squares = f(x)

Generally avoid np.vectorize, as it does not perform well, and has (or had) a number of issues. If you are handling other data types, you may want to investigate the other methods shown below.

Comparison of methods

Here are some simple tests to compare three methods to map a function, this example using with Python 3.6 and NumPy 1.15.4. First, the set-up functions for testing:

import timeitimport numpy as npf = lambda x: x ** 2vf = np.vectorize(f)def test_array(x, n):    t = timeit.timeit(        'np.array([f(xi) for xi in x])',        'from __main__ import np, x, f', number=n)    print('array: {0:.3f}'.format(t))def test_fromiter(x, n):    t = timeit.timeit(        'np.fromiter((f(xi) for xi in x), x.dtype, count=len(x))',        'from __main__ import np, x, f', number=n)    print('fromiter: {0:.3f}'.format(t))def test_direct(x, n):    t = timeit.timeit(        'f(x)',        'from __main__ import x, f', number=n)    print('direct: {0:.3f}'.format(t))def test_vectorized(x, n):    t = timeit.timeit(        'vf(x)',        'from __main__ import x, vf', number=n)    print('vectorized: {0:.3f}'.format(t))

Testing with five elements (sorted from fastest to slowest):

x = np.array([1, 2, 3, 4, 5])n = 100000test_direct(x, n)      # 0.265test_fromiter(x, n)    # 0.479test_array(x, n)       # 0.865test_vectorized(x, n)  # 2.906

With 100s of elements:

x = np.arange(100)n = 10000test_direct(x, n)      # 0.030test_array(x, n)       # 0.501test_vectorized(x, n)  # 0.670test_fromiter(x, n)    # 0.883

And with 1000s of array elements or more:

x = np.arange(1000)n = 1000test_direct(x, n)      # 0.007test_fromiter(x, n)    # 0.479test_array(x, n)       # 0.516test_vectorized(x, n)  # 0.945

Different versions of Python/NumPy and compiler optimization will have different results, so do a similar test for your environment.