What do *args and **kwargs mean? [duplicate] What do *args and **kwargs mean? [duplicate] python python

What do *args and **kwargs mean? [duplicate]

Putting *args and/or **kwargs as the last items in your function definition’s argument list allows that function to accept an arbitrary number of arguments and/or keyword arguments.

For example, if you wanted to write a function that returned the sum of all its arguments, no matter how many you supply, you could write it like this:

def my_sum(*args):    return sum(args)

It’s probably more commonly used in object-oriented programming, when you’re overriding a function, and want to call the original function with whatever arguments the user passes in.

You don’t actually have to call them args and kwargs, that’s just a convention. It’s the * and ** that do the magic.

The official Python documentation has a more in-depth look.

Also, we use them for managing inheritance.

class Super( object ):   def __init__( self, this, that ):       self.this = this       self.that = thatclass Sub( Super ):   def __init__( self, myStuff, *args, **kw ):       super( Sub, self ).__init__( *args, **kw )       self.myStuff= myStuffx= Super( 2.7, 3.1 )y= Sub( "green", 7, 6 )

This way Sub doesn't really know (or care) what the superclass initialization is. Should you realize that you need to change the superclass, you can fix things without having to sweat the details in each subclass.

Notice the cool thing in S.Lott's comment - you can also call functions with *mylist and **mydict to unpack positional and keyword arguments:

def foo(a, b, c, d):  print a, b, c, dl = [0, 1]d = {"d":3, "c":2}foo(*l, **d)

Will print: 0 1 2 3